The position of Hungarian Roma within the ethnic mosaic of Transylvania was seen as ambivalent by generations of Hungarian researchers. This article presents the main elements of this ambivalent relationship. Music, oral folklore, demography, and political loyalties are the main domains discussed. Romungre were and are understood through lenses of cultural nationalism, archaism and purity, or nationalising minority ideologies. A better approach would be to see them as both Roma and Hungarian.