For centuries numerous Romani communities have lived in the Balkans. Their members are referred to as “Turkish Gypsies” by the surrounding population. In many cases the Gypsies themselves use the same appellation. These Roma are Muslims and in most cases entirely, or at least partially, Turkish-speaking. Many of them also speak Romani or have spoken it in the past. In some cases, the latter is preserved only by the older generations; in other cases, a mixture of both is still in use.